Although sculptural portraits of Caligula have come down to us, none has been found sopra association with his inscribed name

Although sculptural portraits of Caligula have come down to us, none has been found sopra association with his inscribed name

For this reason, Caligula’s iconographic hairstyle, especially with regard onesto the arrangement of the fringe of locks over the forehead, is of great importance con identifying his portraits. Although the configuration of locks is by no means identical in all respects per images of per given portrait type, hairstyles were generally far easier sicuro carve con marble than facial features (even by less talented sculptors), and they therefore provide an important index for identifying portraits.

Consequently, the only reliable images for determining his physical appearance are those on labeled coins, which provide us with either his right or left profile

My focus here is on the « image » of Caligula as transmitted sicuro us by not only the ancient visual evidence, consisting largely of sculpture and coinage, but also the literary sources representing the views of his detractors. These numismatic profile views can be compared with sculptural portraits-in-the-tempo sicuro establish the identity of the imperial personage represented. Though representations of Caligula sopra the form of portraits must also certainly have existed, none has survived from antiquity.

Whether numismatic or sculptural, the extant portraits of Caligula and other members of the imperial family ultimately reflect, sicuro some degree, verso three-dimensional « Urbild, » or prototype, for which the individual presumably sat. These prototypes, which were probably first produced sopra clay, per niente longer survive, but they would have been used for terracotta or plaster models that would presumably have been made available by imperial agents for distribution throughout the Completare, both through military channels and via the « art market. » However, there is per niente surviving material evidence for these putative plaster or creta casts of Roman portraits. Other types of models may also have been distributed coraggio the art market. One possibility not considered durante the past is the dissemination of painted wax face-mask models, though we have niente affatto direct evidence for this either.

Instead, provincial imperial portraits often conformed preciso local, traditional concepts of leadership, suggesting that the central government of Rome only made models available for distribution but did not control how closely they were followed. Local communautaire pressures would nevertheless have assured that the imperial image was both dignified and appropriately displayed. In other areas of production, there is reason preciso believe that the central government, through its agents, did play a direct role in disseminating imperial images, including determining how they would immagine (as sopra the case of state coinage, which was under the direct control of the Princeps). The involvement of imperial agents would likely have also been necessary, for example, when there was a need to make imperial images available rather quickly preciso the military throughout the Pigiare. These images were undoubtedly required in military camps in administering the loyalty oath (sacramentum) onesto a new Princeps and/or, when necessary, sicuro his officially designated successor.

Many of the portraits produced mediante the provinces for civic contexts and municipal or colonial worship did not closely follow the imagery of Roman state models, which reflected the official ideology of the principate

The imperial image before which soldiers usually swore their oath — at least initially to a new Princeps — probably took the form of verso small bronze imago clipeata (« shield portrait ») or some sort of small bust ventola like that attached onesto the military norma (signum) carried durante battle, or it may even have been per small bust affixed esatto the culmine of per plain pole as verso finial. Such standards and poles were also used in parades and kept sopra the shrine (sacellum or aedes) of verso military camp along with portrait statues of the Princeps (and his designated successor), images of the gods, and other military insignia. Thus, represented on the Severan Arch of the Argentarii per Rome is per Praetorian canone with attached small busts of Septimius Severus (below) and his young affranchit and designated successor Caracalla (above)(fig. 9a-b).

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